Een tul is een schijngevecht met denkbeeldige tegenstanders volgens een vast patroon. De 24 tuls die de 24 uren van een dag vertegenwoordigen, zijn ontworpen voor de ontwikkeling van verschillende technieken. Het oefenen van tuls geeft de gelegenheid om bepaalde combinaties van technieken te beoefenen die normaal in de fundamentele oefeningen niet geoefend worden. Tuls bevatten tal van balansoefeningen, spierbeheersingoefeningen en combinatievormen hiervan. Wat deze manier van training uitermate geschikt maakt om je eigen techniek op peil te houden, of te verbeteren. Een voordeel van de tuls is dat ze zonder partner beoefend kunnen worden en derhalve uitermate geschikt zijn voor zelfstudie. Het beoefenen van tuls verschaft de beoefenaar verder de mogelijkheid zijn geest te trainen. Veelvuldig beoefenen van de tuls geeft eenheid van lichaam en geest, waardoor het mogelijk wordt iedere keer een optimale beweging te maken waarin alle energie (kracht) zich verzameld. De essentie van de tul ligt dan niet meer in de beweging zelf, maar in de manier waarop de geest ze hun juiste vorm geeft.
Tuls hebben een multifunctionele rol, ze helpen bij het ontwikkelen en verfijnen van de coordinatie, balans, timing, ademhalingstechnieken en ritme. Al deze vaardigheden zijn essentieel voor een Taekwon-doka om deze onder controle te hebben.
De volgende punten dienen in acht te worden genomen tijdens de uitvoering van de stijlfiguren:
-Een tul moet eindigen op het punt waar deze begonnen is (voor de juistheid van uitvoering ).
-De houding en richting dient voortdurend correct te zijn.
-De tul dient ritmisch, sierlijk, doch krachtig te worden uitgevoerd.
-De uitvoerende dient het doel van elke beweging te kennen.
-De uitvoerende dient de naam van de tul te kennen.
De naam van de oefeningen, het aantal bewegingen en de grafische voorstelling ervan symboliseren heldhaftige figuren uit de Koreaanse geschiedenis, of hebben een direct verband met gedenkwaardige gebeurtenissen ermee.
ITF Taekwondo heeft de volgende Tuls.
|Chonji천지 / 天地 – 19 movements Literally
Cheon-Ji (or Chon-Ji) means “heaven and earth” and refers to the creation of the world or the beginning of human history, and thus is the initial pattern learned by the beginner. It consists of forearm low blocks and punches in the first part to represent earth, and inner forearm middle blocks and punches in the second part to denote heaven. It does not use any kicks. The cross shaped diagram represents the four elements of the universe : fire, water, air and earth.
|Dan-Gun단군 / 檀君 – 21 movements
Dan-Gun is named after the holy Dangun, the legendary founder of Korea in 2333 BC. Unusually for a teul, all the punches in Dan-Gun are high section (at eye level), symbolizing Dangun scaling a mountain.
|Do-san도산 / 島山 – 24 movements
Do-San is a pseudonym of the patriot Ahn Chang-ho (1876-1938). The 24 movements represent his entire life, which he devoted to furthering education in Korea and the Korean independence movement.
|Wonhyo원효 / 元曉 – 28 movements
This pattern is named after the noted monk Wonhyo who introduced Buddhism to the Silla Dynasty in the year 686 AD.
|Yul-gok율곡 / 栗谷 – 38 movements
Yul-Gok is a pseudonym of a great philosopher and scholar Yi I (1536-1584) nicknamed the “Confucius of Korea”. The 38 movements of this pattern refer to his birthplace on 38-degree latitude and the diagram of the pattern represents scholar.
|Jung-Geun중근 / 重根 – 32 movements
Jung-Geun (or Joong-Gun) is named after the patriot Ahn Joong-Gun who assassinated Itō Hirobumi, the first Japanese governor-general of Korea, known as the man who played the leading part in the Korea-Japan merger. There are 32 movements in this pattern to represent Mr Ahn’s age when he was executed at Lui-Shung Prison in 1910.
|Toi-Gye퇴계 / 退溪 – 37 movements
Toi-Gye is the pen name of the noted scholar Yi Hwang (16 century AD), an authority on neo-Confucianism. The 37 movements of the pattern refer to his birthplace on 37-degree latitude, the diagram represents “scholar” as in the Yul-Gok hyeong.
|Hwa-Rang화랑 / 花郎 – 29 movements
Hwa-Rang is named after the Hwarang youth group,which was originated by the Silla Dynasty in about 1350 years ago. The group eventually became the actual driving force for the unification of the three Kingdoms of Korea. The 29 movements refer to the 29th infantry Division, where Taekwondo developed into maturity.
|Chung-Mu충무 / 忠武 – 30 movements
Chung-Mu (or Choong-Moo) was the name given to the great Admiral Yi Sun-sin of the Yi Dynasty. He was reputed to have invented the first armored battleship (kobukson) in 1592, which is said to be the precursor of the present day submarine. The reason this pattern ends with a left hand attack is to symbolize his regrettable death having no chance to show his unrestrained potentiality checked by the forced reservation of his loyalty to the King.
|Gwang-Gae광개 / 廣開 – 39 movements
Gwang-Gae (or Kwang-Gae) is named after the famous Kwang-Gae-Toh-Wang, the 19th king of the Goguryeo Dynasty, who achieved the greatest territorial expansion including the greater part of Manchuria. The diagram of the form represents the expansion and recovery of lost territory. The 39 movements refer to the first two figures of 391 AD, the year he came to the throne.
|Po Eun포은 / 圃隱 – 36 movements
Po Eun is the pseudonym of a loyal subject Jeong Mongju who was a distinguished scholar of neo-Confucianism during the Goryeo Dynasty. His poem “I would not serve a second master though I might be crucified a hundred times” is known to every Korean. The diagram, which is simply a straight line represents his unerring loyalty to the king and his country.
|Gye-Baek계백 / 階伯 – 44 movements
The Gye-Baek (or Gae-Baek) hyeong has 44 Movements. Gae-Baek is named after Gyebaek, a great general in the Baekje Dynasty. The diagram represents his severe and strict military discipline.
의암 / 義菴 – 45 movements
Eui-Am is the pseudonym of Son Byong Hi, leader of the Korean independence movement on March 1, 1919. The 45 movements refer to his age when he changed the name of his religion from Dong Hak (oriental learning) to Chondogyo (Heavenly Way Religion) in 1905. The diagram represents his indomitable spirit, displayed while dedicating himself to the prosperity of his nation.
충장 / 忠壯 – 52 movements
Chung-Jang (or Choong-Jang) is the pseudonym given to General Kim Duk Ryang who lived during the Yi Dynasty, 14th century. This pattern ends with a left hand attack to symbolize the tragedy of his death at 27 in prison before he was able to reach full maturity.
주체 / 主體 – 45 movements
The Juche hyeong has 45 movements. Juche is a philosophical idea that man is the master of everything and decides everything. In other words, the idea that man is that master of the world and his own destiny. It is said that this idea was rooted in Baekdu Mountain, which symbolize the spirit of the Korean people. The diagram represents Baekdu Mountain, which is the highest mountain in Korea.
삼일 / 三一 – 33 movements
Sam-Il name refers to the historic March 1st Movement, the biggest nation-wide Korean independence movement against the imperial Japan in 1919. The 33 movements in the pattern represent for the 33 patriots who planned the movement.
유신 / 庾信 – 68 movements
Yu-Sin (or Yoo-Sin) is named after General Kim Yu-Sin, a commanding general during the Silla Dynasty who played an important role in the merger of Goguryeo and Baekje by Silla. The 68 movements refer to the last two figures of 668 AD the year the three kingdoms were unified. The ready posture signifies a sword drawn to the right rather than the left side, symbolizing Yoo Sin’s mistake of following his king’s orders to fight with foreign forces (Tang Dynasty of China) against his own people (Goguryeo and Baik-je).
최영 / 崔榮 – 45 movements
Choe-Yeong (or Choi-Yong) is named after General Choe Yong, Premier and Commander-in Chief of the armed forces during the 14th century Goryeo Dynasty. Choi Yong was greatly respected for his loyalty, patriotism, and humility. He was executed by subordinate commanders headed by General Yi Seonggye, who later became the first king of the Joseon Dynasty.
연개 / 淵蓋 – 49 movements
Yeon-Gae (or Yon-Gae) is named after the famous general Yon Gae Somoon during the Goguryeo Dynasty. He defended Goguryeo from the aggression of the Tang Dynasty by destroying nearly 300,000 of their troops at Ansi Sung. (This pattern normally resides between Choi Yong and Se-Jong)
을지 / 乙支 – 42 movements
Eul-Ji (or Ul-Ji) is named after general Eulji Mundeok who successfully defended Goguryeo against a Sui invasion force of over one million soldiers led by Yang Je in 612AD. By employing hit and run guerilla tactics, he was able to destroy the majority of the force. The diagram of the hyeong represents his surname. The 42 movements represent the author’s age when he designed the pattern.
문무 / 文武 – 61 movements
Mun-Mu (or Moon-Moo) honors King Munmu, the 30th king of the Silla Dynasty, who completed the unification of the three kingdoms (Goguryeo, Baik-je, Silla). His body was buried near Dae Wang Am (Great King’s Rock). According to his will, the body was placed in the sea “Where my soul shall forever defend my land against the Japanese”. The 61 movements in this pattern symbolize the last two figures of 661 AD when Munmu came to the throne. (This pattern normally resides between Choi Yong and Sea-Jong)
서산 / 西山 – 72 movements
Seo-San (or So-San) is the pseudonym of the great monk Choi Hyon Ung during the Joseon Dynasty. The 72 movements refer to his age when he organized a corps of monk soldiers with the assistance of his pupil Sa Myung Dang. The monk soldiers helped repulse the Japanese who overran most of the Korean peninsula in 1592 during the Imjin War. (This pattern normally resides between Choi Yong and Sea-Jong) Seo-San is the longest of all Taekwon-do patterns.
세종 / 世宗 – 24 movements
This pattern is named after Se-Jong who was the 4th King of the Yi Dynasty. He was known for his many great achievements in domestic and foreign affairs, diplomacy, scientific advancements, defense matters and culture. His most remarkable achievement was his invention of “Hangeul”, the Korean Alphabet. The 24 movements of this pattern represent the 24 letters of the “Hangeul”.
통일 / 統一 – 56 movements
Tong-Il means “unification” which is the ultimate goal of all Koreans. Korea used to be one country, but was divided into North and South Korea in 1945 by the ideological conflict between the USSR and the USA after World War II. Yon Mu Sun, the diagram of this pattern symbolizes the North and South becoming one.